Fruit & Nut Research & Information Center
Fruit & Nut Research & Information Center
Fruit & Nut Research & Information Center
University of California
Fruit & Nut Research & Information Center

Summary Chart: Floral Biology & Pollination

Crop Flower Type Dioecious or Monoecious Pollen Transport Primary Mode of Fruit Set Ovule Position Hypanthium Carpel Number Bearing Habit5
Almond perfect monoecious insect (supp. pollinator required) outcrossing perigyny cup single buds are lateral borne on previous years growth or spurs on older wood
Apple perfect   monoecious  insect (supp. pollinator required)  outcrossing & self fertilization4 epigyny attached multiple buds borne terminally on shoot tips and on spurs >1 yr old
Apricot perfect   monoecious insect outcrossing & self fertilization4   perigyny  cup single   buds are lateral, borne on shoots and spurs >1 yr old
Cherry perfect   monoecious  insect (supp. pollinator recommended) outcrossing perigyny cup single   buds produced laterally and terminally on 1 yr old shoots and spurs on older wood
Fig imperfect dioecious wasp (supp. pollinator required) outcrossing & parthenocarpy n/a n/a single   buds borne in the axils of the current season's wood growth
Kiwifruit imperfect1 dioecious  insect & wind (supp. pollinator required)  outcrossing  hypogyny n/a multiple   buds on first 1-6 nodes of current years growth arising form lateral buds on previous years canes
Olive both perfect & imperfect2 monoecious  wind outcrossing & self fertilization4  hypogyny  n/a single   buds are borne in the axils of 1 ear old wood
Peach & Nectarine perfect   monoecious  insect outcrossing & self fertilization4  perigyny cup single   buds are lateral, borne in 1 yr old shoots
Pear perfect   monoecious  insect (supp. pollinator recommended)  outcrossing & parthenocarpy  epigyny attached multiple   buds on shoot tips and spurs at least 2 yrs old
Pecan imperfect monoecious  wind outcrossing & self fertilization4  n/a n/a   male flowers are lateral; female flowers are terminal, both borne on previous season's growth
Persimmon both perfect & imperfect monoecious  & dioecious3 insect outcrossing & parthenocarpy4 hypogyny n/a multiple   buds are lateral and borne on current year's growth
Plum perfect monoecious  insect (supp. pollinator recommended)  outcrossing & self fertilization4  perigyny cup single   buds are borne on 1 yr old shoots and spurs >1 yr old
Prune perfect monoecious  insect (supp. pollinator recommended)  outcrossing & self fertilization4  perigyny cup single   buds are borne on 1 yr old shoots and spurs >1 yr old 
Pistachio imperfect dioecious  wind outcrossing  n/a n/a   female flowers are lateral, borne on pannicles
Pomegranate  perfect monoecious  insect (supp. pollinator recommended)  outcrossing  semiepigyny attached  multiple   buds borne on short spurs or laterally on wood >1 yr old
Quince perfect   monoecious  insect outcrossing  epigyny  attached  multiple   buds are terminal, borne on 1 yr old shoots or short spurs
Walnut imperfect monoecious  wind outcrossing & self fertilization4  n/a  n/a    male catkin buds are lateral; female buds are borne terminally on shoots and spurs.
Crop Flower Type Dioecious or Monoecious Pollen Transport Primary Mode of Fruit Set Ovule Position Hypanthium Carpel Number Bearing Habit

1 Kiwifruit flowers have both male and female reproductive organs on each   flower. However, they are functionally imperfect. Pollen on "female" flowers is sterile and the ovules on "male" flowers are non-functional.
2 Occasionally olive flowers have stamens with abortive pistils.
3 Some cultivars are predominantly monoecious while others are predominantly dioecious.
4 Variable among cultivars.
5For more on Bearing Habit (in Orchard Mgmt > Tree Growth & Structure)

Page Last Updated: November 5, 2013
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